The Roman Forum also referred to, as Forum Romano is a plaza in the center of the Rome, which is bordered by the remains of several buildings of historical importance. It is a place where trade, commerce, and the administration of justice took place as per the historical evidences. For centuries, it was the focal point of Public life of the Romans. It is the place where processions and elections took place; it had been a spot for many leaders to reach out to the public through their speech. This place has seen many trials and gladiator combats and had been the heart of trade as it had been the most famous meeting place in the history.
The site was actually an Etruscan burial place, which was first developed in the 7th century BC, and eventually became the commercial, social and political hub of the Roman Empire. At one point of time, it was even referred as the Campo Vaccine or the pastureland as it was left untouched by the urban developments of Rome. It was primarily unearthed in the 18th and 19th Century and still continue to be unearthed until date.
During the era of Roman Kingdom, it was an open marketplace due to its placement in the central point, but eventually civil trials and political speeches started taking up the space. Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, began the tradition of Vestal and you can find Casa Della Vestal, which is the home of virgins. Comitia was another place, which was accessible to all easily and where two parties used to meet to form an alliance. There were a number of Basilicas erected during the Roman Republic Era such as Basilica Fluvial and Basilica Sempronia.
The Roman Forum has developed steadily over the centuries. With the impact of urbanization, a large number of buildings surrounded the Roman Forum making it shrink from 130 meters to 50 meters. Basilica Julia on the South and Basilica Aemilia on the North, which helped to define the form of this Forum during the Imperial Period, surround this area. This place has seen warriors such as Julius Caesar, Sulla and Augustus. The travertine paving which is still visible dates back to the control of Augustus.
The most remarkable landmarks include the Curia, the Casa dell Vestal and the Arco di Settimio Severo, Temple of Vesta, Temple of Venus and Roma, Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Arch of Septimius Severus, Temple of Saturn, Arch of Maxima and Arch of Titus. The last monument built within the forum is the Column of Phocas, which is worth seeing. Tullianum is another worthwhile place, which can be visited, as it was the prison that was used to hold a number of foreign generals and leaders. Some of these ancient monuments have vanished or are in ruins and some are still standing as they were reconstructed.
It is very confusing yet truly impressive that the Roman Forum is actually an extraordinary sprawl of ruins, ancient Rome's central showpiece, a magnificent district of basilicas and temples, and vivacious spaces for the public.